Within the framework of the project a compact facility “Kubo” was procured for Lysychansk School No 29 to arrange a household wastewater treatment station which prevents soil pollution with wastewater. The “Kombo” compact facility is designed for water purification with biological methods. It operates the following way: wastewater flows to the sewage regulator where it accumulates and then flows evenly for purification. The main process is carried out by combined biological methods in bioreactors where part of fixed nitrogen is converted into gas and released into air. In the aerobic bioreactor organic pollutants are oxidized and nitrogen is converted into nitrate. Oxidation takes place with oxygen from the air which is pumped by the blower through the system of pneumatic aeration. Use of membrane aerators helps reduce energy consumption and decrease power of the blower. Membrane aerators have a much longer lifetime than the normal ones, they are easy to operate and do not require specialised cleaning. Biological purification in aerobic bioreactors is proceeded by free-floating microorganisms – activated sludge. Contaminants are extracted in a retention basin. Its construction helps effectively separate a mixture of activated sludge and clean water. According to the current standards, clean water is disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution which is much safer than free chlorine. The final stage takes place on a bioplato. Disinfected and purified water can be released into a water reservoir, can be used for watering or washing of various areas, etc. During oxidation the amount of sludge continuously grows due to increase of microorganisms and organic pollution. Therefore, part of excess activated sludge is taken from the retention basin and put through the nutsche filter for dehydration where it is also compressed. The dehydrated sediment is periodically transferred from the nutsche filter into the trash bin and is taken to locations allocated by local authorities and approved by the sanitary and epidemiological station and the Department of Ecology and Natural Resources. The benefits of the facility are as follows:
- High efficiency of purification – 95-98%;
- Simplicity of use and equipment maintenance;
- Small area required to place treatment plants;
- No need to additionally equip of the building to place treatment plants;
- Little time required to deliver and adjust equipment;
- Low energy consumption;
- High quality of clean water which can be used for different technological purposes.
One of the project’s areas is to raise awareness in land degradation. Therefore, within the framework of the project a range of events was conducted, including a public hearing and a round table discussion “Wastewater Treatment Plants as an Example of the Necessity to Use Eco-Friendly Technologies”.
The public hearing took place in Lysychansk, Luhansk region on 17 September, 2014, which involved 126 participants including Lysychansk residents, representatives of local authorities and the city council, NGOs activists and media. The issues of land degradation, installation of wastewater treatment plants in private households to decrease the impact of liquid household waste on soil pollution, and the ways to promote treatment plants among the community were discussed during the event.
The round table discussion “Wastewater Treatment Plants as an Example of the Necessity to Use Eco-Friendly Technologies” was conducted in Lysychansk on 24 September, 2014. Deputies of Lysychansk city council, city public activists, members and volunteers of “Tsiliuscha Syla” NGO, members of other local NGOs and city residents took part in the event. In total, about 52 participants were engaged in it. The following issues were discussed during the round table:
- Human activity as the main source of environmental degradation, particularly soil erosion;
- The problem of wastewater treatment and its urgency for every area of human activity – both industrial and household;
- Selection of cleaning systems, their installation and further usage.
During the discussion of the abovementioned topics the participants stated that the negative impact of wastewater on environment is primarily related to direct transfer of wastewater to natural or artificial reservoirs, wells and sediment fields, where their harm can only be minimized with the help of correct and quality purification. It is necessary to urgently adopt European experience in methods of processing of household wastewater, particularly in the areas where fresh water reserves are significantly limited.
In addition, within the project, publications on the project’s implementation and the ways to prevent land degradation (Ecoden newspaper, calendar) were distributed among the public.